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Biological Nitrogen Removal (BNR) The biological processes that primarily remove nitrogen are nitrification and denitrification. Nitrification is defined as a two-stage biological process, which occurs under aerobic conditions (in the presence of oxygen). During nitrification, ammonia is oxidized to nitrite by one group of autotrophic bacteria, known as Nitrosomonas. The nitrite is then further oxidized to nitrate by another group of autotrophic bacteria, known as Nitrobacter. Typical aerobic biological activated sludge existing at wastewater treatment plants can be modified to achieve nitrification by extending the mean cell residence time beyond the values used for typical activated sludge processes while maintaining adequate dissolved oxygen Thus, Nitrification can be accomplished simultaneously with BOD removal processes if the mean cell residence time is extended from 6 to 8 days, thereby being very close to the optimum value for CBOD (carbonaceous BOD) removal. De-nitrification occurs under anaerobic conditions (in the absence of oxygen), and involves the biological reduction of nitrate to nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, and nitrogen gas which is released to the atmosphere. De-nitrification can be accomplished by heterotrophic bacteria in the absence of dissolved oxygen. These bacteria use the oxygen in the nitrate, instead of dissolved oxygen, to digest organic material, thereby releasing nitrogen gas as a waste byproduct. For treatment facilities to achieve optimum biological nitrogen removal it is important to process wastewater through a series of aerobic and anaerobic stages, to ensure complete nitrification and de-nitrification is achieved.
Biological Phosphorus Removal (BPR)
Biological phosphorus removal involves a physical process that results in the growth of a biological population of aerobic eterotrophs capable of storing orthophosphate in excess of their biological growth requirements. Exposing the bioculture of an activated sludge process to an anaerobic-aerobic sequence causes the proliferation of these microorganisms, known as phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAO), within the mixed liquor. Under anaerobic conditions, the PAO’s convert readily available organic matter to carbon compounds called poly-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA). The PAO’s use energy generated through the breakdown of polyphosphate molecules to create PHA’s. This breakdown results in the release of phosphorus. Under subsequent aerobic conditions, PAO’s use the stored PHA’s as energy to take up the phosphorus that was released in the anaerobic zone, as well as any additional phosphate present in the wastewater.
Features of Bacta Cult Nutrient Removal: